What significantly contributed to the increase in export value was the exchange rate of the Polish zloty against the euro which was favourable for exporters and supported the competitive prices of Polish agri-food products on the international market. What also had an effect on revenue on international sales by Polish exporters were high transaction prices of food internationally, resulting i.a. from the economic consequences of the military conflict in Ukraine.
The good results achieved in the export of agri-food products testify to the growing efforts of domestic entrepreneurs towards diversifying business relations on third-country markets and improving the quality of the products on offer. With product offerings adapted by Polish entrepreneurs to the varied preferences of foreign consumers, a demand for Polish products on the international market is maintained.
The increase in revenue on international sales in the ten months of 2022, as well as the greater growth dynamics compared to 2021, confirm that Polish entrepreneurs operating in the agri-food industry are faring well on the international market. The export of agri-food products allows managing excess food produced in Poland, as well as is a significant source of revenue for the Polish agri-food industry, and has a positive effect on the country’s economy.
At the same time, the value of agri-food products imported was EUR 26.2bn (PLN 122 bn), and was 29.6% higher year over year. The positive trade balance amounts to EUR 13.0bn (PLN 61bn), 23.0% higher than in the period from January to October 2021.Export of agri-food products from Poland by territory
As in previous years, agri-food products were exported from Poland largely to the market of the European Union. From January to October 2022, deliveries to EU-27 states generated over EUR 29bn (an increase of 30%), making up over 74% of total revenues on export of agri-food products from Poland
Poland mostly sold the following to the EU Member States: poultrymeat (EUR 2.7bn), cigarettes (EUR 2.4bn), milk products (EUR 2.2bn), beef (EUR 1.5bn), breads and bakery products (EUR 1.5bn), petfood (EUR 1.3bn), and chocolate products (EUR 1.3bn).
Polish agri-food export to the EU market is considerably concentrated geographically. Poland’s main trade partner is Germany. From January to October 2022, the value of exports to that country amounted to EUR 9.7bn, 26% higher than the year before. Exports to Germany mostly included cigarettes, poultrymeat, fish preparations, petfood, breads and bakery products, chocolate, and chocolate products. Other important recipients of Polish agri-food products also included the Netherlands (EUR 2.6bn, a 43% increase; export of mostly poultrymeat, cigarettes, grains of maize, beef, chocolate, chocolate products, as well as fruit and vegetable juices), France (EUR 2.4bn, a 34% increase; export of mostly poultrymeat, meat preparations, beef, chocolate and chocolate products, breads and bakery products, and petfood), Italy (EUR 1.9bn, a 20% increase; mostly cigarettes, beef, fish preparations, as well as cheese and quark, making up close to 50% of the export value), and the Czech Republic (EUR 1.8bn, an increase of 34%; export of mostly poultrymeat, breads and bakery products, as well as cheese and quark).
In total, export to the markets of the aforementioned five countries (Germany, the Netherlands, France, Italy and the Czech Republic) generated around EUR 18.4bn, which in value is over 63% of exports to EU-27 countries.
Poland exported over EUR 10.1bn worth of agri-food products to non-EU states from January to October 2022, which is 20% more than in the comparable period in 2021. Poland’s exports to non-EU states included most of all: milk products (EUR 858mn), poultrymeat (EUR 806mn), wheat (EUR 648mn), chocolate products (EUR 605mn), breads and bakery products (EUR 590mn), and cigarettes (EUR 516mn).
Important non-EU recipients of Polish agri-food products, like in previous years, were largely the United Kingdom (EUR 3.0bn in revenue, a 26% increase in value; export of mostly poultrymeat, meat preparations, chocolate and chocolate products as well as breads and bakery products), Ukraine (EUR 786mn, a 20% increase; export of mostly cheese and quark, petfood, coffee, water, pigmeat, as well as chocolate and chocolate products), the United States (EUR 638mn, a 29% increase; export of mostly chocolate and chocolate products, pigmeat, fish and fish preparations, as well as meat preparations) and Saudi Arabia (EUR 435mn, an 8% decrease; export of mostly cigarettes, wheat, as well as breads and bakery products), and further down the line – Israel (EUR 334mn, a 43% increase; export of mostly beef, sugar and wheat), Norway (EUR 248mn, a 14% increase; export of mostly cigarettes, grains of maize, petfood and fruit preparations), as well as Algeria (EUR 219mn, a 42% decrease; export of mostly condensed milk and milk powder– 65% in value, and tobacco – 27%).Export of agri-food products from Poland by goods
In the breakdown by goods, meat and meat preparations dominated the Polish export of agri-food products. From January to October 2022, the revenue on the international sales of this product group rose by 39% compared to the previous year, amounting to EUR 8.0bn, constituting 20% of the total value of Polish agri-food product exports. The largest share in the value of exported meat and meat products was in poultrymeat (44% – EUR 3.5bn), meat preparations (23% – EUR 1.8bn), beef (22% – EUR 1.7bn) and pigmeat (8% – EUR 677mn). Export of livestock and other kinds of meat was relatively small in value, making up 2% and 1% respectively of the revenue on the export of meat products from Poland.
The second-highest item in value, with a 14% interest in export of agri-food products from Poland, was cereal grains and preparations, the total sales of which grew by 40% compared to the analogous period in 2021, to EUR 5.4bn.
Revenue on the export of cereal grains was EUR 2.5bn. 7.3mn tonnes of cereal grains exported were made up by maize in 41% (3.0mn tonnes, export volume increase by 92%), wheat in 41% (3.0mn tonnes, a 6% decrease), rye in 5% (381k tonnes, a 62% decrease) and barley in 4% (287k tonnes, a 31% decrease).
Exporters placed grains mostly on the Union market (5.2mn tonnes, 71% of exported grain). From January to October 2022, grains of maize were exported mostly to Germany (1.4mn tonnes, 48% of exports of the said grain), the Netherlands (498k tonnes, 17%) and the United Kingdom (243k tonnes, 8%). Largest recipients of wheat were primarily Germany (959k tonnes, 32% of exports of the said grain), Nigeria (353k tonnes, 12%) and South Africa (253k tonnes, 8%). The main destination for rye from Poland was Germany (330k tonnes, 87% of exports of the said grain), whereas for barley – Germany (189k tonnes, 66% of exports of the said grain), the Netherlands (35k tonnes, 12%) and Algeria (31k tonnes, 11%).
Increase in the value of export was observed practically in all agri-food product groups, i.e., tobacco and tobacco products (5%, up to EUR 3.6bn), milk products (42%, up to EUR 3.1bn), sugar and confectionery (15%, up to EUR 2.6bn), fish and preparations (13%, up to EUR 2.2bn), as well as vegetables and preparations (21%, up to EUR 1.9bn), and fruit and preparations (8%, up to EUR 1.5bn). There was also a rise in the value of exported oilseeds and vegetable fats – by 77% (EUR 1.3bn), tea, coffee and cocoa – by 26% (EUR 0.9bn), fruit and vegetable juice – by 25% (EUR 0.7bn), as well as alcohol – by 16% (EUR 0.6bn).Marcin Wroński
Deputy Director-General of the National Support Centre for Agriculture